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The Great Outdoors

Posts about wild lands, wildlife, and other outdoor pursuits. Hiking, biking, camping, and any other flimsy excuse people can come up with to be out in the woods are featured.

Posted by on in The Great Outdoors

What to Bring on a Day Hike

Those that know me know that I do a lot of hiking. I try to get out twice a week for long day hikes (4-6 hours). I also try to get out at least twice a week for shorter hikes that I can do before work, after work, or during a (long) lunch hour. So I'm out in the woods 3 or 4 times a week, probably around 15 hours a week. I do everything from short, easy hikes near town, to all day excursions into very remote, rugged country that contains all sorts of hazards, including grizly bears. Because of that, I'm often asked what I take when I hike. What do people need when they go out on a day hike? What are the essentials? 

 In Beargrass


There are a few ways to approach this idea of what to take when you hike. One theory is just to show up at the trailhead with maybe a water bottle (maybe not even that) and just head off into the forest, assuming that somehow everything will be okay. These people will inevitably end up lost, hurt, or dehydrated, requiring a whole lot of other people to search for them at considerable time and expense. 

Another category of hikers knows that there are Gods of Outdoor Recreation. These gods look down upon outdoor enthusiasts (hikers, bicycists, kayakers, etc.) and determine who is prepared and who is not. They notice wha has the proper gear and who is setting out unprepared. Because of this, If you go out without a first aid kit, you will get injured. If you go without a raincoat, it will rain. the Gods will see to it. On the other hand, if you have a first aid kit (space blanket, toilet paper, or whatever), you probably won't need it. I have worked in the outdoor industry and taken and led dozens of trips. I'd say most of the people I know who spend a lot of time in the outdoors know this rule. If you bring it, you probably won't need it. If you don't have it, you will wish that you did. I load up my pack based on this oft-proven rule. I'm also going to break up the gear I take into three categories: essentials you should have for any hike, optional items that could make your day a lot more comfortable, and survival items, in case you get into trouble.


I always have water and food, more than I think I'll need for the day's hike. Let's say I slip on a wet log and hurt a knee, a few hours from the trailhead. Getting back is going to take a looong time. All of a sudden I need more water and food than I thought I would. I also bring extra in case something extreme happens and I need to spend a night in the woods. I bring a small first aid kit to fix up any physical issues, and some duct tape to fix any gear that fails. I wrap some duct tape around the shaft of my hiking poles, layering it over itself. It's a convenient place to keep it until you need it and you don't have to carry a whole, bulky role. I bring toilet paper and use a knife to dig out a small "cat hole" if necessary. I also have a Swiss Army Knife for its many uses. Lastly, I carry a whistle. If you get lost, you can blow a whistle for a long time, whereas if you're just shouting for help, your voice will eventually give out They're small and cheap; no reason not to toss one in your pack. For route finding, I realize I'm pretty low-tech. Old school. I carry a compass and I bring a map. I know how to read a map and how to interprete a topographic map and I'm pretty good at correlating the map to what I see around me. I use landmarks and topography to find my way, much of the time. With these skills, I've never found a need for a GPS unit, though I realize it has advantages (sometimes people I hike with use GPS or apps on their phones). I also bring a raincoat. It's easy to set off on a bright sunny day and have a rain storm blow in suddenly. In Montana I've seen storms come out of nowhere, fast, and change a dry, sunny day into rain, cold, or hail in a matter of minutes. I climb a lot of mountains and the weather up top is often much colder and windier than down below. Storms like to smack the mountaintops, too. I bring my cell phone if I hike alone, but sometimes leave it behind if I know others in the group have them. A bandana is another essential. It can be used as a handkerchief, sling, head-cover, pot holder, route marker, bandage, rag, or for many other things. I always carry a few.

So, with these things you can stay energized and hydrated, you can find your way, you can stay warm and dry, you can fix stuff that breaks, and you can signal if you get lost.


Optional Items

An extra pair of socks. I carry an extra pair (wool) in case the trail goes through a marshy area, or you have to cross a few streams, or if hiking in snow and rain. My boots are "waterproof' but that only goes so far, and having an extra pair of dry socks can make the difference between comfort and hypothermia. If you hike in wet conditions, you might want to move these into the essential category. I bring sunscreen, but not bug spray. I'm concerned with skin cancer, but I mostly ignore the insects. Some crawl on me. Some bite. Other than ticks, I don't do too much about them. I also have a little point and shoot camera that I carry in a pocket. I use hiking poles, which help when you're in tricky terrain: loose rock, scree fields, steep descents, and stream crossings.They also help to take some of the weight off of your knees. I bring them on longer, tougher day hikes but sometimes leave them behind if I'm going on a flatter/easier/gentler hike. The last optional item is Bear Spray. in Montana, black bears are pretty prevalent and some places have grizzly bears. Running into either unexpectedly could be real trouble. Bear spray is a good, non-lethal way of dealing with aggressive bears. I don't bring it if I'm going to hike in certain areas I know well, where the sight lines are long and there are lots of people on the trail.

Survival Items

It's not that hard to get lost in the woods. People have gotten lost in small parks, within a few miles of trailheads, and in areas they knew pretty well. Maps are sometimes wrong, trail signs missing. Sometimes trails on the map no longer exist on the ground. Getting lost can be a life-and-death situation. Similarly, you could fall and break an ankle, wreck a knee, or hit your head. Suddenly the few miles back to the trailhead might as well be a thousand miles. You need to survive until help arrives, maybe overnight.

In case something like this happens to me, I carry several items that, hopefully, I will never use. Portable water tablets are good for purifying water, if your supply runs out. I carry waterproof matches and a ferro rod striker, two different ways to start a fire, just in case. I have a few dozen feet of nylon paracord that I can use if I need a rope or to make a shelter. I have a polypro winter hat and wool gloves stashed in my pack in case I'm stuck out overnight and a space blanket to keep me warm and for sleeping. I carry a good, sturdy fixed-blade knife for survival situations. I recommend one of high-carbon steel, full tang, single edged, with a good thick spine (1/4"). Since you'll need to do some small tasks with it, as well as chopping wood, batoning, etc. you want one about 9-12inches in overall length. With a knife like that you can cut branches to make a shelter, cut firewood, or do any sort of camp chores. If you really want to be prepared, you can put a headlamp in your pack. It would come in handy if you get caught out after dark or if you had to spend an overnight in the wild. Sometimes I carry one, but if I'm trying to save space and weight I'll leave it. Two more things you want to toss into your pack. One is a tough, full-sized garbage bag. It could be used to carry or contain water, as a poncho to keep you warm or dry, as a tarp to huddle under, as a bag to hang food away from bears, or as a groundcover to sleep on. Lots of uses for this if you think about it. Anothet thing I always have in my pack is a big, folded piece of aluminum foil. You could make a little cooking pot or baking sheet out of it, use it as a signal mirror, make a fishing lure from it, or tear strips and hang them in trees to mark your route. 


All of these survival items take up minimal space in your pack and don't weigh much, but if you need them, you'll be glad to have them. They could be the difference between comfort and misery, safety and danger, or life and death. 

So this is what I typically carry in my pack (bear spray and my fixed blade knife are carried on my belt, camera and bandanna in a pants pocket). Water accounts for the majority of the weight I carry. These days (July and 90 to 98 degrees) I carry close to 90 ounces of water.  Most outdoor experts recommend that you drink 32 ounces (1 liter) of water every two hours when hiking. My 90 ounces lasts me about six hours and I carry more water in my vehicle. Most of the survival stuff is stuffed into the bottom of my pack. These items serve me pretty well even on a long hike over tough terrain whether i'm going to climb a mountain peak or hike up a creek or whatever.

I also do shorter hikes very near where I live on trails I know well. These trails have a steady stream of hikers, runners, dogwalkers, etc. so it's hard to get lost there and if i were hurt there would be plenty of people around to help. I still grab the same pack when I head out, so i take almost the same stuff. The exception is that I might not take my hiking poles, bear spray, or big knife, and i bring less water if i'm just going for a few miles.




Green Mt








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Capitol Reef National Park is a great place to connect to the elements of earth and stone. Here you'll find vast monoliths, huge rock formations, and towering cliffs in tones of brown, tan, orange, pink, red, white, and every color in between. As the daylight, weather, and cloud cover changes throughout the day, the colors change like a massive kaleidoscope.IMG 0599


The best way to experience the power and scale of the earth element here is by hiking. When you hike, you experience the rock up close and really feel the power of stone all around you. You hike through, over and between the rock, and the trails often take you along slickrock shelves and ramps. You may start in a low canyon with brown and red walls looming high above you and end up climbing up among white layers of navajo sandstone.


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I won't go into a lot of technical detail about the geology here. Whole books have been written on the subject and most leave me more confused than before I read them. Two things you need to know about Capitol Reef, though. One is that there are more layers of rock exposed here than almost anywhere in the Southwest (except the Grand Canyon). The other is that the elevation in Capitol Reef ranges from near 9,000 feet in the northwest corner to around 4,000 feet in the south. All this means that you can see lots of layers of rocks, each layer representing a different time in rock history. Rock dominates here and the variety is phenomenal. Above is a photo of the white knobs (domes) of Navajo Sandstone with black volcanic rocks in the foreground.

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The layers of rock represent 200 million years of clay, sand, gravel, volcanic ash, evaporated salts, and aquatic fossils that have been deposited here over time. It's easy to feel a connection with the past here among the ancient elements of earth.

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The Golden Throne (above).

You'll find monuments here, monuments of rock. Also spires, domes, thrones, natural bridges, and arches. When you gaze on the steep canyon walls, it's difficult not to see faces, animals, and spirits.

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When you are among these stone walls and formations, it is easy to feel the power of these places. There is a feeling of solidity, strength, and age-old patience in the rock formations here, and its easy to get a feeling of awe when surrounded by the high canyon walls.

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Cathedral Rock on the far right (above)

While the earth element is strong here, there are plenty of vistas with great views of the wide open skies to balance things out. The heat of the desert is balanced out by the green, lush growth around the visitors center, where giant old cottonwoods and a variety of fruit trees grow.

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In the last year, I’ve climbed ten different mountains. I’ve learned some things about myself and a lot about mountains. I’ve found that most mountains don’t let you just stroll to the top. No, you have to earn the top and most peaks make you work for it. They do this in a number of ways. They hit you with snow, wind, rain, and sleet. Trails are choked with deadfall. They offer you terrain so steep that muscles burn and you struggle for air. You sweat, you strain. One step, then another. How about some self-doubt? Are you a quitter? The mountain wants to know. 

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A mountain can turn you around, confuse you. If it doesn’t want you on its flanks, it can shrug you off like a dog with a tick. Sometimes you have to bushwhack through dense forest that slams your shins and grabs at your clothes. If you get overconfident, think you’re prepared and fit and raring to go, some mountains throw in additional obstacles. Snow so deep that the trail disappears. Trail signs that underestimate distances. Scree fields. False summits. A mountain makes you work, to struggle. It decides if you’re worthy.


Even for those who persevere, the summit can be a triumph or it can be the mountain’s final lesson. Fog, snow, or low clouds can rob you of your scenic payoff. Beautiful summit view denied. The mountain has decided that if you want that nice bonus, you’ll have to go through it all again. That’s right, you’ll have to work for it, and the mountain has decided you’re only half done. I believe that mountains want respect. They punish those who aren’t prepared, people who don’t bother to bring the right gear, or the right attitude. Some are fairly forgiving, while others really make you pay. And pay. 


You don’t conquer a mountain. Instead a mountain decides whether or not it allows you to get to the top. It decides how many obstacles to put in your way.


Most of the mountains I’ve climbed are relatively small, 7,000 to 10,000 feet. Not the high Andes or the Himalayas by any means. The consequences are not as severe, though the lessons are the same. A mountain can make you struggle, or a mountain can kill you. Bring the right attitude and be prepared and maybe, just maybe, it will let you see the top.

Josephine Pk0001

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Everything you need to know about getting the ideal tomahawk.


One of the earliest tools that humans ever made was the small, stone-headed axe. As humans evolved, axes were found to be great tools and powerful weapons. When the iron age came around, it was natural that people would make axes with metal heads and sturdy wooden handles. These were great farm tools, wood choppers, and weapons. For example, many vikings used axes as their primary weapon in war. This was because a good sword could cost more than the rest of their possessions combined. The axe, on the other hand, was a tool they used on their farms on a daily basis. They could sharpen up their axe, tuck it in their belt, and be ready to fight. In fact, the small axe was popular as a weapon in many parts of Europe for this reason.


In the 1600s and 1700s, elite British grenadier units were issued hatchets in addition to their regular weapons. The hatchets were useful for everything from breaking in enemy doors to chopping wood in camp. Presumably, they were also good in a fight, so they had many uses. Veterans of the wars in Europe emigrated to America and took their fighting tools and styles with them, including the axe/hatchet. In The New World, newly arrived Europeans found nNtive Americans that used clubs and stone axes (tamahakan, or tomahawks) for war. America's frontiersmen used axes for cutting wood, clearing brush, and for self-defense. Each group had different fighting styles, but all agreed that axes were useful as tools and as weapons. Being useful for both made it something well worth carrying.

In modern times, tomahawks have been used by U.S. soldiers in several wars including Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Again, the tomahawk is useful because it is both a useful tool and a deadly weapon, a trait that is all important to a soldier where carried weight is critical. Why carry a weapon and a tool if a tomahwak can do both? U.S. soldiers have found tomahawks useful for prying open crates, breaking into buildings, chopping up pallets, and more.

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Here in Montana, we have a lot of wild creatures. More than one person has had close calls with Moose this year. We have deer, elk, coyotes. I even saw a lone red fox the other day on one of my hikes, but the one animal everyone wants to know about is bears. Everyone who comes out to visit our great state asks about bears. What precautions should we take? How dangerous are they? If we're going camping, should we get a gun? So many questions.


I've dealt with a lot of bears in my life. I've seen them when I was biking, and when I've been hiking. I've had bears visit my campsite in the middle of the night. I've seen Grizzlies in Glacier NP, and in Yellowstone. I've seen the rare white Spirit Bears in B.C., and the big brown bears in Alaska. I've been in bear dens, and I worked on a grizzly bear DNA study. The end result of all this is that a lot of people ask me what to do about bears.

blackbearblack bear6338141481 ff6b922312_mGrizzly (notice the shoulder hump!)

Talk Amongst Yourselves

What do people need to know if they're visiting bear country? Well first you should know a little about bear behavior. Bears aren't malicious beasts just waiting to attack people. In fact, if a bear knows that you're coming, and that you're a human, they often just leave of the area. Usually bears don't want to deal with annoying people. If a mother bear has cubs, all the more reason for them to flee to the safety of the forest. So, the first rule in bear country is to let bears know you're coming. Make noise, and not just any noise, but sounds that identify you as human. That means talking loudly, especially if you're in dense brush where visibility is limited. You'll see people wearing bear bells, or whistling to signal their approach, but the bear biologists I have traveled with don't recommend that. After all, other animals whistle, and bells are just confusing. You want to announce, very clearly, that you are a human, and talking (or even singing) is the clearest way to do that. Talk or sing if you're coming around a blind corner or if you're in heavy brush, or anyplace else where you and a bear could get too close. A surprised bear is a dangerous bear, so make sure they know you're coming.

Don't Run

I realize you can't talk all the time (your hiking companions would kill you), so there's still a chance you could startle a bear. If you find yourself too close to a bear, don't run. Bears are predators. When things run, they are prey. Predators chase prey, that's what they do. Don't run and it won't set off a bear's instinct to chase. Besides, a bear can run faster than you, so it won't do you any good anyway. Also, don't make eye contact, especially with a grizzly. They take it as a challenge to their authority, and you don't want to do that. instead, talk calmly and quietly so the bear knows what he's dealing with. Give a bear every opportunity to get away. I've come across several bears in the wild, including a few mothers with cubs, and I've always had success talking quietly and giving them plenty of space. When they start moving away, take a few slow steps the other direction. Distance is your best friend here, but move slowly. No sudden movements. I came across a mother black bear with a cub last year. I stopped, stayed calm, and talked quietly. The mother maneuvered herself between me and the cub. i took a tentative step back while I talked. She seemed okay with it, since she really only wanted me away from the little one. I took another step. All good, but we were on a curving trail. When I took one more step, the trees that defined the inside of the curve were suddenly between us. To the mother bear, I had disappeared, and suddenly not knowing where I was was a problem. She ran two steps toward me, until she could see me again, then she stopped. She wasn't coming after me, but with a cub nearby she needed to know where I was. If I had run, things could have gone bad.

salmon bear

Keep Your Distance

So my best advice in dealing bears is to avoid getting too close. Watch the area around you. Keep your eyes up, and your head in the present. Look as far ahead as you can while hiking. Look for bears, and if you see one, don't approach it. A human might have a zone of personal space that extends about three feet in every direction. A grizzly might feel have feel that its personal space extends fifty yards, or a hundred. Maybe you see one seventy five yards away and decided to get just a little closer for a photo. Ooops! The bear's comfort zone was seventy four yards, and you just crossed the line. Now a huge bear feels threatened and it's blaming you. You might see a bear and think it wouldn't hurt to get a little bit closer. After a few steps you see a little cub pop up out of the undergrowth. Trouble. Keep your distance and stay out of trouble.

If you're going to a national park, a state forest, or a national forest, the staff there will know where, specifically, there have been bear sightings. They'll have rules for how to deal with food and garbage, and pamphlets about how to act in bear country. Bears in different places have learned different behavior, so local info. is the best info. Talk to the rangers and get all the information you can before setting out.


Bear Spray


Lastly, when people ask 'should I get a gun? or something similar I have some strong advice for them. No, no, and no. Don't think you should go out and get a gun if you're traveling in bear country. First off, You should only bring a gun if you are an experienced gun user who has a solid grasp of gun safety and handling. Otherwise you're just compounding your dangers. Second, if you are not an experienced shooter you won't have much success against a huge, aggressive bear. You'll be full of fear, nerves, and adrenaline. You'll have a lot of trouble handling a weapon safely, let alone getting off a shot good enough to stop a bear. Bears are much, much faster than you think. An angry one could be on you before you even think to aim. Last but not least, you could panic and shoot a bear that is really not a threat. You don't want to be responsible for the death of one of these great creatures because you overreacted and happened to be carrying the means to kill it. Instead, bring bear spray. It's a non-lethal deterrent that can send a bear running without having a nasty close encounter.

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Hiking Essentials
What to Bring on a Day Hike Those that know me know that I do a lot of hiking. I try to get out twi...
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Earth and Stone in Capitol Reef, NP
Capitol Reef National Park is a great place to connect to the elements of earth and stone. Here you'...
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